Your professor is kind of an idiot because he somehow manages to understand white privilege, white washing, and how racism affects poc etc, but FAILS to accept that it cannot be the responsibility of only people of color to educate white people. Imagine if we lived in a world where his logic was applied, and only the oppressed were allowed to speak of their oppression.
When people of color are expected to educate white people as to their humanity, when women are expected to educate men, lesbians and gay men are expected to educate the heterosexual world, the oppressors maintain their position and evade their responsibility for their own actions.
Also, if your class desires a representative of another race to tell them how movie castings are white-washed simply because they “understand what it’s like” point them in literally any direction, seriously. There is nothing a white person can say about racism that a person of color hasn’t already said, written books about, or protested in the past. But the problems still exist, why? Because people of color are not in a position of power and will likely be ignored, talked over, or silenced when we speak out. The only way to really end racism is not if all people of color speak out about it, it’s if WHITE PEOPLE LISTEN AND EDUCATE EACH OTHER. I applaud you for taking responsibility and using your privileged position to try and make others aware.
You are self aware and self critical, and you are trying to teach others to do the same by example. If your class opposes this crazy notion that a white person should defend another race, that in itself is a symptom of white supremacy. You never claimed to understand what we feel, you simply listened and understand that it’s disgusting when hollywood cast white actors to play historically black roles.
If it helps you in the future to use this ask to support your argument, by all means sister.
That professor is also an idiot, because this is America, where you’re “allowed” to say or think anything you damn well please.
There’s a lot that’s not really known about the origin and development of the Icelandic magical staves, but it is clear that they are part of a wider European “black book” tradition. There are actually kind of a lot of these books of magic spells and signs in Iceland, which are called galdraskræða (plur. galdraskræður) or black books in English. It can be difficult to determine what parts are home-grown Icelandic ideas and what parts originate in more southern parts of Europe. They are obviously collections of things from elsewhere, some probably copied from other books which have themselves now been lost.
One theory is that at least some of the Icelandic magic staves are complicated bindrunes which have become stylized, either intentionally by the creator or maybe over time while being copied. It’s true that the symbols don’t look like any runes that we’re used to seeing, but by this time there were huge collections of alphabets that the manuscript authors called “runes” but which are completely unrecognizable as them.
Here are two pages from Huld, ÍB 383 4to from 1860, compiled from at least three older manuscripts according to Galdrasýning (which dates it rather to 1847) which can be viewed online at handrit.is. Alphabets 325-329 are all called Völvurúnir ’Völva’s runes.’ If it is true that staves were composed in that way, the number of symbols the creators had at their disposal is really completely unknown. They also had incredibly complex and detailed methods for ciphering. It could also be that the theory is wrong, or just doesn’t apply to this particular symbol.
Thorsson (actually, under his real name, Stephen Flowers) did translate the Galdrabók into English, and the commentary is problematic but the translation is okay (he is usually more down-to-earth when he’s using his real name). I think he did it from an edition by Matthías Viðar Sæmundsson rather than straight from the manuscript. The contents were already well-established by then — though there isn’t much available in English, Icelanders have been cataloging these things for ages. The folklorist Jónas Jónasson credited his use of it to another folklorist, Ólafur Davíðsson, but I’m not sure from which manuscript Ólafur got it.
The Vegvísir itself is actually not in the Galdrabók (Flowers included a bunch of other stuff in the appendices of his translation) so I’m not sure from which manuscript it originates or was picked up into popular culture, but here it is, once again in Huld (see above):
And again, in LBS 5472 4to, which is the first book of notes that Jónas Jónasson used when compiling information for his book Íslenskir þjóðhættir. This can also be seen online.
A think a lot of confusion comes from people believing Icelandic grimoires are “viking magic” or something like that. I always get a good laugh when I see a picture of, like, an Ægishjálmur surrounded by elder futhark runes. Those two things are separated by a thousand years! The truth is that Icelandic magic signs are not even medieval, they’re products of an early modern, post-reformation society. The actual modern study of runology was already under way before the earliest black books on record (not that it was quite as sophisticated as it is now, but the first serious scholar of runes, Ole Worm, was already dead before the following manuscript was compiled… although it would still be a long time before Sophus Bugge cracked the elder futhark). It is definite that they have some connection to things that came before them, but determining what they are, and sorting out which is which, is not very easy.
Here are pages from one of the most famous black books, Galdrakver Lbs 143 8vo, which is from 1670, making it maybe the oldest, I’m not sure. Notice the Latin: “sanctus spiritus”, and the second page is “Solomon’s sigil.” Obviously not 100% home-grown stuff. Not that that makes it not awesome.
See also: Galdrasýning, the Icelandic museum of sorcery and witchcraft (the design of the website kind of sucks and not entirely translated but it’s trustworthy).
things that are okay
- looking for ryan in a gnome outfit
- looking for ryan’s twist magazine shoot
things that are not okay
- spamming twist magazine’s twitter for the pictures of ryan that they probably don’t have on hand
- sharing information about ryan’s wife all over the internet bc thats not fucking cool
On a scale of 1 to 10, about how much do you think Ryan regrets telling everyone that he was a model?
Give it to me now.
k i need this book why havent i read this
This looks really good…………………..and like it’s gonna have a killer soundtrack
I must watch this movie with booze.
It still blows my mind when British actors can pull off an American accent so well. If I didn’t know it was Radcliffe…and yes, I want to see this….